It has been suggested that massage therapy for TMD improves both the subjective and objective health status. Occasionally physiotherapy for TMD may include the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation TENS , which may override pain by stimulation of superficial nerve fibers and lead to pain reduction which extends after the time where the TENS is being actually being applied, possibly due to release of endorphins. Others recommend the use of ultrasound , theorized to produce tissue heating, alter blood flow and metabolic activity at a level that is deeper than possible with surface heat applications.
The goals of a PT in reference to treatment of TMD should be to decrease pain, enable muscle relaxation, reduce muscular hyperactivity, and reestablish muscle function and joint mobility. PT treatment is non-invasive and includes self-care management in an environment to create patient responsibility for their own health. Therapeutic exercise and Manual Therapy MT are used to improve strength, coordination and mobility and to reduce pain.
Treatment may focus on poor posture, cervical muscle spasms and treatment for referred cervical origin pain referred from upper levels of the cervical spine or orofacial pain. MT has been used to restore normal range of motion, promoting circulation, stimulate proprioception , break fibrous adhesions, stimulate synovial fluid production and reduce pain. Exercises and MT are safe and simple interventions that could potentially be beneficial for patients with TMD.
No adverse events regarding exercise therapy and manual therapy have been reported. There have been positive results when using postural exercises and jaw exercises to treat both myogenous muscular and arthrogenous articular TMJ dysfunction. MT alone or in combination with exercises shows promising effects. It is necessary that trails be performed isolating the type of exercise and manual techniques to allow a better understanding of the effectiveness of this treatment. Additionally, details of exercise, dosage, and frequency as well as details on manual techniques should be reported to create reproducible results.
High quality trails with larger sample sizes are needed. There is some evidence that some people who use nighttime biofeedback to reduce nighttime clenching experience a reduction in TMD. This is the adjustment or reorganizing of the existing occlusion, carried out in the belief that this will redistribute forces evenly across the dental arches or achieve a more favorable position of the condyles in the fossae, which is purported to lessen tooth wear, bruxism and TMD, but this is controversial.
These techniques are sometimes termed "occlusal rehabilitation" or "occlusal equilibration".
- A new way for TMJ?
- Arielle and the Three Wolves (Siren Publishing Menage Amour);
- Nicholas - Wolf Saga book 1?
- Four Novels: Jane Eyre, Wuthering Heights, Agnes Grey, and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall?
Occlusal adjustment can also be very complex, involving orthodontics , restorative dentistry or even orthognathic surgery. Some have criticized these occlusal reorganizations as having no evidence base, and irreversibly damaging the dentition on top of the damage already caused by bruxism.
Based on these data occlusal adjustment cannot be recommended for the treatment or prevention of TMD. These conclusions were based largely on the fact that, despite many different scientific studies investigating this measure as a therapy, overall no statistically significant differences can be demonstrated between treatment with occlusal adjustment and treatment with placebo.
The reviewers also stated that there are ethical implications if occlusal adjustment was found to be ineffective in preventing TMD. Orthodontic treatment, as described earlier, is sometimes listed as a possible predisposing factor in the development of TMD. On the other hand, orthodontic treatment is also often carried out in the belief that it may treat or prevent TMD.
Another systematic review investigating the relationship between orthodontics and TMD concluded the following:. In addition, there are no data which identify a link between active orthodontic intervention and the causation of TMD. Based on the lack of data, orthodontic treatment cannot be recommended for the treatment or prevention of TMD. A common scenario where a newly placed dental restoration e.
Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction: MedlinePlus
This may localize all the force of the bite onto one tooth, and cause inflammation of the periodontal ligament and reversible increase in tooth mobility. The tooth may become tender to bite on. Here, the "occlusal adjustment" has already taken place inadvertently, and the adjustment aims to return to the pre-existing occlusion. This should be distinguished from attempts to deliberately reorganize the native occlusion. These techniques are reserved for the most difficult cases where other therapeutic modalities have failed.
Examples of surgical procedures that are used in TMD, some more commonly than others, include arthrocentesis , arthroscopy , meniscectomy, disc repositioning, condylotomy or joint replacement. Invasive surgical procedures in TMD may cause symptoms to worsen. This is rarely carried out in TMD, it may have some benefits for pain, but dysfunction may persist and overall it leads to degeneration or remodeling of the TMJ.
Acupuncture is sometimes used for TMD. Chiropractic adjustments also termed manipulations or mobilizations are sometimes used in the belief that this will treat TMD. Some sources suggest that there is some evidence of efficacy of chiropractic treatment in TMD,  but the sources cited for these statements were case reports and a case series of only 9 participants.
Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction
One review concluded "inconclusive evidence in a favorable direction regarding mobilization and massage for TMD". It has been suggested that the natural history of TMD is benign and self-limiting,  with symptoms slowly improving and resolving over time. TMD mostly affects people in the 20 — 40 age group,  and the average age is Within the catchall umbrella of TMD, there are peaks for disc displacements at age 30, and for inflammatory-degenerative joint disorders at age For unknown reasons, females are more likely to be affected than males, in a ratio of about ,  although others report this ratio to be as high as Temporomandibular disorders were described as early as ancient Egypt.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the syndrome with joint pain. For the range of diseases affecting the joint, see Temporomandibular joint pathology.
Main article: Bruxism. Left TMJ, medial view, showing sphenomandibular and stylomandibular ligaments. Sagittal TMJ cross-section showing articular eminence, articular disc, and upper and lower joint spaces. Main article: Temporomandibular joint. Main article: Muscles of mastication. Left medial and lateral pterygoid muscles. Left temporalis muscle.
Left masseter muscle red highlight. Play media. Main article: Surgery for temporomandibular joint dysfunction. Robert A. Egan ed. Retrieved 13 March Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation. Retrieved 22 May Tulsa, OK: PennWell. Philadelphia: W. Journal of Chiropractic Medicine. American Association for Dental Research. Retrieved 6 June McDonald F ed. Pain Management Nursing.
Applied occlusion. London: Quintessence. Archived from the original on 19 December Retrieved 7 May International Headache Society. World Health Organization. Management of temporomandibular disorders and occlusion 5th ed.